Epitopes described in "Man, apes, and Old World monkeys differ from other mammals in the expression of alpha-galactosyl epitopes on nucleated cells."

Article Authors:U Galili; S B Shohet; E Kobrin; C L Stults; B A Macher
Article Title:Man, apes, and Old World monkeys differ from other mammals in the expression of alpha-galactosyl epitopes on nucleated cells.
Reference Detail
Reference ID:1020620
Abstract:The study of the expression of alpha-galactosyl epitopes on various mammalian cells is of particular interest, since as much as 1% of circulating IgG antibodies in humans interact with this carbohydrate residue. This natural antibody, designated "anti-Gal," was previously found to bind to terminal Gal alpha 1----3Gal beta 1----4GlcNAc-R on biochemically defined glycolipids (Galili, U., Macher, B. A., Buehler, J., and Shohet, S. B. (1985) J. Exp. Med. 162, 573-582; Galili, U., Buehler, J., Shohet, S. B., and Macher, B. A. (1987) J. Exp. Med. 165, 693-704). The expression of anti-Gal binding epitopes on nucleated cells from various mammalian species was studied by immunostaining with this antibody. The binding of anti-Gal to various cells was correlated with the binding of the lectin Bandeiraea (Griffonia) simplicifolia IB4 (BS lectin). The BS lectin also interacts with alpha-galactosyl residues and particularly with high affinity with Gal alpha 1----3Gal beta 1----4GlcNAc residues. We observed a striking evolutionary pattern in the expression of these epitopes on mammalian nucleated cells. Fibroblasts, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and lymphoid cells of nonprimate mammals, prosimians, and New World monkeys readily bound both anti-Gal and BS lectin. However, no such binding was detectable on cells of Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. Measurment of the binding of radiolabeled BS lectin to the various nucleated cells suggests that cells binding anti-Gal express 10(6) to 3.5 x 10(7) alpha-galactosyl epitopes, most of which, based on the anti-Gal specificity, seem to have the structure of Gal alpha 1----3Gal beta 1----4GlcNAc-R. The absence of these epitopes from human cells results from diminished activity of the enzyme alpha 1----3 galactosyltransferase, which catalyzes the following reaction. Gal beta 1----4GlcNAc-R + UDP-Gal(alpha 1----3-galactosyltransferase)----Gal alpha 1----3Gal beta 1----4GlcNAc-R + UDP This enzyme, which participates in the glycosylation of cell membrane glycoconjugates in nonprimate mammals, prosimians, and New World monkeys, appears to have been suppressed in Old World primates as a result of evolutionary events which occurred 20-30 million years ago. It is argued that an anomalous activity of this enzyme in man may result in initiation of autoimmune diseases because of the de novo expression of Gal alpha 1----3Gal beta 1----4GlcNAc-R epitopes recognized by anti-Gal.
Reference Type:Literature
PubMed ID:2460463
Journal:J Biol Chem
Journal Volume:263
Article Pages:17755-62
Journal ISSN:1083-351X
Article Chemical List:ABO Blood-Group System;Epitopes;Glycoconjugates;Galactosyltransferases;Galactose
Article MeSH List:ABO Blood-Group System; Animals; Biological Evolution; Cell Line; Epitopes(genetics); Galactose(immunology); Galactosyltransferases(metabolism); Glycoconjugates(analysis); Haplorhini(genetics); Humans; Mammals(genetics); Organ Specificity; Primates(genetics); Species Specificity; Strepsirhini(genetics); Vertebrates(genetics)
Curation Last Updated:2014-04-11 20:16:15