Epitopes described in "Adrenaline-activated structure of β2-adrenoceptor stabilized by an engineered nanobody."

Reference
Article Authors:Aaron M Ring; Aashish Manglik; Andrew C Kruse; Michael D Enos; William I Weis; K Christopher Garcia; Brian K Kobilka
Article Title:Adrenaline-activated structure of β2-adrenoceptor stabilized by an engineered nanobody.
Reference Detail
Reference ID:1026932
Abstract:G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are integral membrane proteins that have an essential role in human physiology, yet the molecular processes through which they bind to their endogenous agonists and activate effector proteins remain poorly understood. So far, it has not been possible to capture an active-state GPCR bound to its native neurotransmitter. Crystal structures of agonist-bound GPCRs have relied on the use of either exceptionally high-affinity agonists or receptor stabilization by mutagenesis. Many natural agonists such as adrenaline, which activates the 2-adrenoceptor (2AR), bind with relatively low affinity, and they are often chemically unstable. Using directed evolution, we engineered a high-affinity camelid antibody fragment that stabilizes the active state of the 2AR, and used this to obtain crystal structures of the activated receptor bound to multiple ligands. Here we present structures of the active-state human 2AR bound to three chemically distinct agonists: the ultrahigh-affinity agonist BI167107, the high-affinity catecholamine agonist hydroxybenzyl isoproterenol, and the low-affinity endogenous agonist adrenaline. The crystal structures reveal a highly conserved overall ligand recognition and activation mode despite diverse ligand chemical structures and affinities that range from 100 nM to ∼80 pM. Overall, the adrenaline-bound receptor structure is similar to the others, but it has substantial rearrangements in extracellular loop three and the extracellular tip of transmembrane helix 6. These structures also reveal a water-mediated hydrogen bond between two conserved tyrosines, which appears to stabilize the active state of the 2AR and related GPCRs.
Date:2013
Reference Type:Literature
PubMed ID:24056936
Journal:Nature
Journal Volume:502
Article Pages:575-9
Journal ISSN:1476-4687
Article Chemical List:Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists;BI167107;Benzoxazines;Ligands;Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2;Single-Chain Antibodies;Water;Tyrosine;hydroxybenzylisoproterenol;Isoproterenol;Epinephrine
Article MeSH List:Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists(pharmacology); Benzoxazines(pharmacology); Binding Sites(drug effects); Crystallography, X-Ray; Directed Molecular Evolution; Epinephrine(pharmacology); Humans; Hydrogen Bonding(drug effects); Isoproterenol(analogs & derivatives; pharmacology); Ligands; Models, Molecular; Protein Engineering; Protein Stability(drug effects); Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2(chemistry; drug effects; metabolism); Single-Chain Antibodies(genetics; pharmacology); Tyrosine(chemistry; metabolism); Water(chemistry; pharmacology)
Curation Last Updated:2014-10-03 23:03:03