Epitopes described in "Extreme CD8 T cell requirements for anti-malarial liver-stage immunity following immunization with radiation attenuated sporozoites."

Article Authors:Nathan W Schmidt; Noah S Butler; Vladimir P Badovinac; John T Harty
Article Title:Extreme CD8 T cell requirements for anti-malarial liver-stage immunity following immunization with radiation attenuated sporozoites.
Reference Detail
Reference ID:1020686
Abstract:Radiation-attenuated Plasmodium sporozoites (RAS) are the only vaccine shown to induce sterilizing protection against malaria in both humans and rodents. Importantly, these "whole-parasite" vaccines are currently under evaluation in human clinical trials. Studies with inbred mice reveal that RAS-induced CD8 T cells targeting liver-stage parasites are critical for protection. However, the paucity of defined T cell epitopes for these parasites has precluded precise understanding of the specific characteristics of RAS-induced protective CD8 T cell responses. Thus, it is not known whether quantitative or qualitative differences in RAS-induced CD8 T cell responses underlie the relative resistance or susceptibility of immune inbred mice to sporozoite challenge. Moreover, whether extraordinarily large CD8 T cell responses are generated and required for protection following RAS immunization, as has been described for CD8 T cell responses following single-antigen subunit vaccination, remains unknown. Here, we used surrogate T cell activation markers to identify and track whole-parasite, RAS-vaccine-induced effector and memory CD8 T cell responses. Our data show that the differential susceptibility of RAS-immune inbred mouse strains to Plasmodium berghei or P. yoelii sporozoite challenge does not result from host- or parasite-specific decreases in the CD8 T cell response. Moreover, the surrogate activation marker approach allowed us for the first time to evaluate CD8 T cell responses and protective immunity following RAS-immunization in outbred hosts. Importantly, we show that compared to a protective subunit vaccine that elicits a CD8 T cell response to a single epitope, diversifying the targeted antigens through whole-parasite RAS immunization only minimally, if at all, reduced the numerical requirements for memory CD8 T cell-mediated protection. Thus, our studies reveal that extremely high frequencies of RAS-induced memory CD8 T cells are required, but may not suffice, for sterilizing anti-Plasmodial immunity. These data provide new insights into protective CD8 T cell responses elicited by RAS-immunization in genetically diverse hosts, information with relevance to developing attenuated whole-parasite vaccines.
Affiliations:Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America.
Reference Type:Literature
PubMed ID:20657824
Journal:PLoS Pathog
Journal Volume:6
Article Pages:e1000998
Journal ISSN:1553-7374
Article Chemical List:Antimalarials;Malaria Vaccines;Vaccines, Attenuated
Article MeSH List:Animals; Antimalarials(immunology); CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes(immunology); Immunity; Immunization; Immunologic Memory; Liver(immunology; parasitology); Malaria Vaccines(administration & dosage; immunology); Mice; Sporozoites(immunology; radiation effects); Vaccines, Attenuated(immunology)
Curation Last Updated:2015-07-30 20:37:34